Because of conservation of angular momentum, such changes of inertia result in small changes to the Earth's rate of rotation. On the day of the earthquake, it was the 40th birthday of their mother, Shiroe; a small celebration was planned at home that evening. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific, and warnings were issued and evacuations carried out. Miyagi prefecture suffered the greatest losses, with some 10,800 killed or missing and another 4,100 injured. As of 3 June 2011 aftershocks continued; a regularly updated map showing all shocks of magnitude 4.5 and above near or off the east coast of Honshu in the last seven days showed over 20 events. Farmers, suddenly unable to sell their produce, killed themselves.  Many electrical generators were taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure. The faces looked intently at the judge. So I focused instead on the faces of the listening parents – there, surely, I would immediately be able to read the verdict, in their anger or jubilation. , On 13 March 2011, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) published details of tsunami observations recorded around the coastline of Japan following the earthquake. “It was like a solid thing. “Quickly. 1. , Seismologists had anticipated that the "big one" would strike the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake—in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo.  In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 m (1.6 ft)..  Four days later on 11 April, another strong magnitude 6.6 Mw aftershock struck Fukushima, causing additional damage and killing a total of three people.. For the aftershock that occurred on 7 April, see April 2011 Miyagi earthquake.  The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, or about 31 seconds after the earthquake occurred. Date 00:58:53, December 26 … Wikipedia, 2011 Virginia earthquake — Shake map … Wikipedia, 2011 Christchurch earthquake — Christchurch earthquake redirects here.  The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately 561 km2 (217 sq mi) in Japan. “It was as if someone with great strength was pushing. Three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi power station melted down, spilling their radioactivity across the countryside, the world’s worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl. Its name was Okawa; it lay in a forgotten fold of Japan, below hills and among rice fields. The economic impact included both immediate problems, with industrial production suspended in many factories, and the longer term issue of the cost of rebuilding which has been estimated at ¥10 trillion ($122 billion). The epicentre. When the roads clear, experts will be dispatched to conduct further investigations. Chile's section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan, at about 17,000 km (11,000 mi) away, but still was struck by tsunami waves 2 m (6.6 ft) high. The stray words of a surviving child, revealing an unrecognised failure. The reference to “park, etc” made little sense out here in the countryside, where there were fields and hills, but no parks as such. , As a result of the 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s²). “It was a huge black mountain of water, which came on all at once and destroyed the houses,” he said. 37, containing the most detailed numbers of damage, killed and injured people. Nowhere in Japan are precautions against natural disaster more robust than in state schools. And I started thinking and thinking, and I became very suspicious about the circumstances in which we lost our daughter.  All railway services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at major stations across the city. Most of the parents who came to the school were full-time mothers and housewives; most of the villagers offering their opinions were retired, elderly and male. , The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant was shut down automatically. Within five minutes – the time it had taken them to evacuate their classrooms – the entire school could have ascended high above sea level, beyond the reach of any conceivable tsunami. It was Kohei Takahashi, Tetsuya’s friend and fifth-year classmate. In the Tohoku earthquake, less than 10 percent of the deaths were from shaking damage, according to UNESCO reports.  Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. Most disturbing of all were the sounds it generated as it collided with, and digested, the stuff of the human world: the crunch and squeal of wood and concrete, metal and tile. The first major foreshock was a 7.2 MW event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the location of the 11 March quake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 MW. The Survey team had several GPS monitors located near the scene of the earthquake. “Teachers at the school,” the report stated, “were psychologically unable to accept that they were facing imminent danger.” If any one of these failures had not occurred, the committee concluded, the tragedy could have been avoided. The second were local people from the village – to complicate matters further, Okawa elementary was itself designated an official place of evacuation for the village of Kamaya.  Also, at slope of nearby mountain from 400 m (1,312 ft) Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in Miyako, Iwate, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9 m (127 ft). Services on Yamagata Shinkansen resumed with limited numbers of trains on 31 March. , A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. Could the teachers have foreseen the coming of the tsunami? The great majority of those killed overall were drowning victims of the tsunami waves. I stayed in bed for three days.  On 12 March, 252 dams were inspected and it was discovered that six embankment dams had shallow cracks on their crests. A generalised dread took hold, the fear of an invisible poison spread through air, through water – even, it was said, through mothers’ milk. The reservoir at one concrete gravity dam suffered a small non-serious slope failure. The tsunami resulted in over 300,000 displaced people in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. Deaths were caused by the initial earthquake and …  Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable. As he climbed out and made for the hill, he became aware of a large number of children issuing forth from the school in a hurry. From the education board’s log: Child: My mum came to pick me up, and we told Mr Takashi that I was going home. The aftershock at 06:25 UTC could be felt in Yuzhno-Kurilsk (MSK 5) and Kurilsk (MSK 4).. I saw the patrol car parked in front of the village police box.  One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20 m (66 ft), and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40 m (130 ft). , Japan experienced over 900 aftershocks since the earthquake, with about 60 registering over magnitude 6.0 Mw and at least three over 7.0 Mw. At 2.45pm, the school bus was waiting in the car park with its engine running; a few of the younger pupils had already climbed in.  Rolling blackouts began on 14 March due to power shortages caused by the earthquake.  A total of 319 fishing ports, about 10% of Japan's fishing ports, were damaged in the disaster.  By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without electricity fell to 242,927. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunami waves. But the policeman wasn’t passing on the warning, and he wasn’t trying to escape, either. , In the immediate aftermath of the calamity, at least 1.5 million households were reported to have lost access to water supplies.  Near Ōarai, people captured images of a huge whirlpool that had been generated by the tsunami.  This brought the total number of problematic reactors to six. They frowned in concentration; their features were blank and expressionless. Secondary evacuation place, in case of tsunami: vacant land near school, or park, etc.”. A tsunami—Japanese for “harbor wave”—is a series of powerful waves caused by the displacement of a large body of water. I’m underneath you,” Tetsuya cried. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami caused a large number of casualties in a region that was considered well prepared against such events. They accused them of negligence, and demanded compensation for each of the lives lost. They were driving through the outer margins of Kamaya when Oikawa became aware of something extraordinary taking place two miles ahead of them, at the point where the sea met the land.  The single crematorium in Higashimatsushima, for example, could only handle four bodies a day, although hundreds were found there. “They weren’t small, fast shakes – it felt gigantic. Until a few years ago, the children had gone up there as part of their science lessons, to cultivate a patch of shiitake mushrooms.  The reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Dai-ni plants were automatically taken offline when the first earthquake occurred and have sustained major damage related to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Sign up to receive the top stories you need to know now on politics, health and more, © 2020 TIME USA, LLC. A total of 125 square kilometres (48 sq mi; 31,000 acres) of ice broke away. earthquake that struck Japan on Friday 11 March 2011, Fukushima Daiichi power station melted down, two-part map showing the region of japan affected by the 2011 tsunami, map showing how tsunami hit kamaya village and owaka school.  Aftershocks follow Omori's Law, which states that the rate of aftershocks declines with the reciprocal of the time since the main quake. At some point, Tetsuya became aware that Daisuke had fallen, and he tried, and failed, to pull his friend up. Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. Map showing the epicenter of the earthquake, Further information: List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Further information: 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, Main articles: Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Timeline of the Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and Timeline of the Fukushima II nuclear accidents, Main article: Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, An aerial view of damage in the Tōhoku region with black smoke coming from the, Peak tsunami wave height locations, color-coded with red representing most severe.