We are grateful to Fabian Jaksić, Jeff Marks, and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable inputs on earlier versions of this report. data). We teased apart the undigested prey remains, and used various parts for identification, such as crania, mandibles, and bones of small mammals; mandibles and scales of reptiles; bills, feathers and bones of birds; and exoskeletons of invertebrates. Overall the study area is composed largely of forest interspersed with agricultural lands and small residential areas (Fig. The diet of the three species differed significantly. Forests are mainly central Indian dry deciduous teak-dominant, with associated species including Anogeissus latifolia, Bridelia retusa, Madhuca latifolia, Terminalia alata, T. arjuna, Boswellia serrata, and Diospyros melanoxylon, interspersed with clumps of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus; Shukla 2013). 0000060185 00000 n We compared their diets to better understand their food habits, dietary overlap, and the mechanism of their coexistence. 2009). The three owlets differ in size, breeding season, activity time (i.e., diurnal, nocturnal), and dietary habits. Calls. (2002) observed foraging of one breeding pair and reported a high frequency of reptilian prey, followed by mammalian prey. We identified small mammals to genus or species level using a mammal identification guide (Talmale and Pradhan 2009) or by comparing with specimens from Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Pune. The length of these spotted owls is around 43 cm (17 inches). It is a typical owlet with a rather plain crown and heavily banded wings and tail. In the dry deciduous teak (Tectona grandis) forests of Khandwa district in Madhya Pradesh, the Forest Owlet co-exists with the Spotted Owlet and the Jungle Owlet. H�L�iPSY��%��E$��U�D�%D�Q�VD6Q��cX$,a ��% �@H�TDDĥahe�nGK�걫f�֩rF��. The upper parts of the bird are dark grey-brown. 0000016567 00000 n The Forest owlet is small and stocky. 3). 72 0 obj The Spotted Owlet hunts mainly at night in the crop fields where these species are commonly found (Agrawal 2010). It is nocturnal bird. The Spotted Owlet hunts mainly at night in the crop fields where these species are commonly found (Agrawal 2010). We classified prey remains to the most precise taxon possible. 2004, Riegert et al. The coexistence of two or more species is possible when resources are abundant or the patterns of resource use differ among the species (Harding 1960). The Forest and Spotted Owlets consumed a wider range of prey sizes (range 2–100 g) than the smaller Jungle Owlet (range 2–22 g). 2013, Balčiauskas and Balčiauskienė 2014, Briones 2015). <> Our findings on the mammalian prey of the Forest Owlet were similar to those reported by Jathar et al. <> It is also known as the Spotted Little Owl… Mus and Suncus genera accounted for 54% and 41% respectively of 323 mammals consumed by the Forest Owlet. We studied owls in the protected forests of East Kalibhit Forest in Khandwa District of Madhya Pradesh in Central India. This may be explained by differences in their body size, mode of hunting, and foraging microhabitat. data) and the Forest Owlet takes large numbers of prey on the ground (P. Mehta unpubl. Jaksić (1982) suggested that sympatric owls having similar body size and hunting mode should feed on similar types and sizes of prey, resulting in high dietary overlap, and sympatric owls differing in body size should consume different prey types, leading to low dietary overlap. Among invertebrates, grasshoppers and crickets were eaten by the Forest Owlet, beetles by the Spotted Owlet, and bugs (Hemiptera) by the Jungle Owlet (Table 3). <>stream endobj Jaksić (1982) tested the validity of this theory by predicting higher dietary overlap among synchronous (active at the same time) species than among asynchronous (active at different times) species and found that activity time did not adequately explain niche separation. The dietary overlap was highest between the Forest Owlet and Spotted Owlet (56%), lower between the Spotted and Jungle Owlet (28%), and lowest between the Forest and Jungle Owlet (22%). 69 0 obj endobj endstream 98 0 obj The diet of the Spotted Owlet includes large rodents such as Bandicota bengalensis, Tatera indica and Rattus rattus (body weight >150 g; Beg et al. 0000082777 00000 n Bars represent means expressed as percentage. La dieta de las tres especies difirió significativamente. 0000029275 00000 n Spotted owlet breeds in tropical Asia from India to Southeast Asia. 2004, Scott et al. Our findings suggest that the Forest Owlet is a generalist predator that hunts prey of various sizes from the agricultural land and forest areas. Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference Tundra to Tropics: 96–101, Roost and diet selection by southern Spotted Owlet, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, Niche separation of two sympatric owls in the desert of northwestern China. The mammalian biomass consumed by the three species differed significantly in the smallest prey class (<10 g; Kruskal Wallis H = 16.2, P < 0.05) and the 11–25-g class (H = 9.68, P < 0.05; Fig. Percent prey frequencies in the diets of the Forest Owlet, Spotted Owlet, and Jungle Owlet in East Kalibhit Forests, Khandwa District, Madhya Pradesh, India. The Spotted Owlet preys mainly on invertebrates and medium-sized nocturnal mammals from agricultural land, whereas the Jungle Owlet is a specialized predator feeding mainly on invertebrates and smaller-sized mammals from forested areas. Summers are extremely hot from March to mid-June (maximum temperature 48°C) and winters are moderately cold and dry (minimum temperature 5°C) from October to February. Now, a bird's stomach has two parts: The diet of the Forest Owlet has been described from two published accounts, both from Toranmal Reserved Forests in northwestern Maharashtra State. Prachi Mehta, Jayant Kulkarni, Shyamakant Talmale, Ridhi Chandarana; Diets of Sympatric Forest Owlets, Spotted Owlets, and Jungle Owlets in East Kalibhit Forests, Madhya Pradesh, India. 0000067146 00000 n Diets also differed significantly among the three owls in terms of the mean prey mass of the species consumed. Crop fields on the village boundary abutting the forest include winter crops such as wheat, soybean, grams, and pulses. 2014). The owl's signal call—used by adult males and females to mark and defend territory, and by males delivering food to females—is a series of four hooted notes, with the middle two closest together. During winter months, the mammalian prey are active during early morning and late evening hours (Agrawal 2010), and so are available to the diurnal Forest Owlet and the crepuscular/nocturnal Spotted and Jungle Owlets. The diet of Northern spotted owl also includes following kinds of mammals: Mice; Red-backed voles; Brush rabbits; Red tree voles; Bushy-tailed … In the laboratory, we soaked pellets in water for 30 min and dissected them with pincers and forceps to separate prey remains. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. In areas where woodrats make up the bulk of the diet, the owl has a smaller home … To date, the Forest Owlet has been reported from twelve locations in India (Mehta et al. And Rahmani 2004, Mehta et al scant attention from avian ecologists to India, Occasional Paper.. Larger mammal prey differ in size, mode of hunting, and two reviewers. In tropical Asia from mainland India to Southeast Asia, laying 3–5 eggs many owls ( Marti 1974, 1987... 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