It is especially deputed to see that no item of expenditure fixed in the Budget exceeds the amount specified, or is changed or altered, and that each item is expended in the proper manner. Tilmann J. Röder, The Separation of Powers: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, in: Rainer Grote and Tilmann J. Röder, Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries (Oxford University Press 2012), p. 321-3372. ART. ART. Concerning the taking and counting of the votes, and the determination of those elected. The Parliament of Iran has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. The ulamá and Proofs of Islám shall present to the National Consultative Assembly the names of twenty of the ulamá possessing the attributes mentioned above; and the Members of the National Consultative Assembly shall, either by unanimous acclamation, or by vote, designate five or more of these, according to the exigencies of the time, and recognize these as Members, so that they may carefully discuss and consider all matters proposed in the Assembly, and reject and repudiate, wholly or in part, any such proposal which is at variance with the Sacred Laws of Islám, so that it shall not obtain the title of legality. A zealot, Mirza Muhammed Riza of Kirman, who had been influenced by the ideas of Jamaluddin Afghani, assassinated the Shah in 1896. viii. iv. The sovereignty is a trust confided (as a Divine gift) by the people to the person of the King. He could not force an evacuation from the British embassy. If those proposals shall have been originated in the Senate, or by the Cabinet of Ministers, they must first be amended and corrected in the Senate and accepted by a majority of votes, and must then be approved by the National Consultative Assembly. This was a clear warning to the Russians and to the Germans who were negotiating with the Ottomans to build a railroad through Iraq to Kuwait. 46. The next prime minister, a protégé of the Shah, lasted but a few weeks while protests and sit-ins multiplied in the provincial towns. This Council shall be under the temporary supervision of the Governor or Deputy-Governor of that place. Habitual smokers gave up smoking. ART. The delegates so elected must reside in the town for which they are elected, or in the environs of that town. These four persons shall be appointed, subject to the approval of the Governor, by the Provincial or Departmental Council from outside its members. More ominous were the moves of the Russian army to the north. The Members shall be elected for two whole years. 36. ART. Those elected in the individual towns of the province must be provided with a certificate from the local Council; and in like manner those elected in the chief towns of the provinces must be provided with a certificate from the provincial Council, which they must produce in the National Consultative Assembly. ART. 90. The prestige of Britain suffered while that of Russia, which had refused to intervene in the turmoil, went up. iii. 104. 93. After the announcement of the conclusion of the poll, the President of the Council [of Supervision] shall empty the ballot box in the presence of the other members [of the Council] and of those present, and shall order the votes to be counted. ART. 7. 16. Reforms to Constitution 1906 The period 1960–63 marked a turning point in the development of the Iranian Progress. The principal concern of the new Shah, like that of his father, was to raise loans to finance his lavish lifestyle. Jamaluddin Afghani’s letters had their desired effect. The Shah did not keep his promises. ART. 34. ART. The confiscation of the property or possessions of any person under the title of punishment or retribution is forbidden, save in conformity with the Law. A large number of deputies and several defending youth, were slain. 37. The Articles added to complete the Fundamental Laws of the Persian Constitution ratified by the late Sháhinsháh of blessed memory, Muִzaffaru'd-Dín Sháh Qájár (may God illuminate his resting-place!) When Dost Muhammed died and his brother Mohammed Azam became the emir, Jamaluddin was appointed the prime minister. 60. Merchants closed their shops. The frontiers, provinces, departments and districts of the Persian Empire cannot be altered save in accordance with the Law. The explanation and interpretation of the laws are, moreover, amongst the special functions of the above-mentioned Assembly. ART. The deliberations of the Senate are ineffective when the National Consultative Assembly is not in session. 106. (iv) fraudulent bankrupts : Persons who have committed murder or theft, and other criminals deserving punishment according to the Law of Islám, as well as persons reputed guilty of murder, theft, etc., who have not legally established their innocence.
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